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泌乳母猪的营养研究

作者:来源:时间:2008-06-10 15:02点击:

    母猪泌乳期的饲养目标是:最大限度地提高母猪的泌乳量和乳品质以使仔猪窝增重最大;使母猪泌乳期失重最小,尽可能地缩短断奶-发情间隔,并提高下一繁殖周期的排卵数。为获得母猪最佳的长期的繁殖效率,须最大限度地降低其泌乳期失重(Dourmad et al.,1994)。其中增加泌乳期的采食量是母猪饲喂方案中最重要的方面,应最大限度地提高泌乳期的采食量。

    1. 泌乳期的采食量及其影响因素

    许多研究已证明,母猪的繁殖性能随泌乳期采食量的增加而改善,泌乳期间的总采食量与母猪的泌乳性能以及随后的繁殖性能之间呈正相关关系。Aherne(1994)报道,将初产母猪的采食量由4.5增加至5.5 kg/d,则第二胎的窝产仔数可由10.2头增至11.2头。通常,母猪分娩后最初几天采食量会下降,而泌乳初期的低采食量可影响其后的繁殖力(Revell et al.,1998a)。母猪在整个泌乳期或泌乳期某阶段采食量低,则很可能断奶时窝仔数较少,且易发生断奶后乏情(Koketsu et al.,1996a),从而延长了断奶-发情的时间间隔(weaning-estrous interval,WEI)(Mullan et al.,1989;Vesseul et al.,1993)。对于现代瘦肉型猪,尤其是初产母猪,妊娠期充分饲喂后实行限饲或降低采食量会影响其妊娠率(Dourmad et al.,1994)。

    通常,泌乳期的采食量应逐渐升高直至断奶,且1~6胎随胎次的增加而增加(O’Grady et al.,1985;Koketsu et al.,1996b);且较肥的母猪及经产母猪维持需要高,将比初产母猪消耗更多的饲料。母猪的随意采食量随着窝产仔数的增加及泌乳量的提高而增加,Verstegen et al.(1985)推荐,每头哺乳仔猪分摊的母猪耗料应为 0.45 kg。

    影响泌乳期采食量的因素有:产后嗜眠症、肠容积减少及分娩应激等,但主要影响因素是营养。妊娠期间采食量水平高,母体沉积脂肪过多,将影响泌乳初期及整个泌乳期的采食量。大量研究表明,提高妊娠期采食量会降低泌乳期间母猪的随意采食量(Salmon-Legagneur and Rerat,1962;Mullan and Williams,1989;Dourmad,1991)。且妊娠期能量摄入和体增重的增加,会导致泌乳期能量摄入的降低及泌乳期失重增加(Salmon-Legagneur and Rerat,1962;Baker et al.,1969;Brooks and Smith,1980;O’Grady,1980;Cole,1982;Williams et al.,1985;Weldon et al.,1994)。Weldon et al.(1994)研究表明,母猪妊娠最后1/3期自由采食自然会降低整个泌乳期的采食量。同样,与饲喂高纤维日粮相比,整个妊娠期饲予母猪高脂肪日粮,会降低其泌乳期总的能量摄入量,并动用更多的体脂(Trottier,1991)。

    妊娠期和泌乳期的日粮蛋白质浓度也影响泌乳期的随意采食量。妊娠期饲以高蛋白水平会刺激泌乳期的食欲(Mahan and Mangan,1975),若泌乳期也饲喂高蛋白日粮则这种反应加剧。而Johnston et al.(1993)发现,母猪妊娠期饲予14%CP的日粮,泌乳期即使给予各种CP水平也不会改变泌乳期的采食量模式。

    2. 泌乳期的饲喂方式

    泌乳期也应象妊娠母猪一样实行阶段饲喂方式。母猪分娩后的头几天逐渐限量地增加采食量,且于泌乳第一周达到最大采食量。典型的做法是,泌乳第1 d的饲喂水平仅满足维持需要,直到泌乳4 d或5 d 逐渐增加供饲量,此后自由采食,这种饲喂制度可减少饲料浪费,但与分娩后即自由采食相比,并不能提高总的采食量或改善母猪及仔猪的生产性能(Stahly et al.,1979;Moser et al.,1987;English,1990;Snow et al.,1997)。Koketsu et al.(1996a) 报道,母猪达到最大采食量的时间越早,且采食量不再下降,则其断奶后发情的时间也就越早。由于早期隔离断奶(SEW)技术的实施,缩短了泌乳期,每头母猪的平均日采食量降低(Koketsu et al.,1996b)。如泌乳期为28d的母猪平均日采食量为5.4 kg/d?头,而泌乳期为10 d的母猪平均日采食量为4.1 kg/d?头。另外,饲喂频率对母猪的随意采食量或仔猪生产性能无影响(NRC-89,1990)。

    3. 泌乳期的体重损失及失重内容

    通常,母猪主要靠日粮营养物质来满足泌乳的营养需要,但也动用自身机体储备的蛋白质和脂肪,其中泌乳期体重总变化的95%是蛋白质和脂肪(Mullan and Williams,1990)。当估测母猪的营养需要和预测繁殖成绩时,妊娠增重和泌乳失重是关键指标和必要参数(King et al.,1986;King,1989)。

    母猪泌乳期失重与采食饲料量和摄入的营养物质高度相关,当母猪采食量达不到最大泌乳所需的营养物质时,就会动用体储来维持一定的泌乳量,引起母猪失重增加。研究表明,母猪(尤其是初产母猪)泌乳期损失过多的体重或体况(蛋白质和脂肪)会延长断奶-发情的时间间隔(Vesseur et al.,1994),减少断奶后10 d内发情的母猪头数,降低妊娠率和胚胎存活率(Cole,1990; Ejinarsson and Rojkittikhum,1993;Everts,1994;Foxcroft et al.,1995;Muirrhead,1995;Close and Mullan,1996;Neil,1996),尤其在饲料消耗或能量(或蛋白质)摄入量低的情况下更易发生(van der Peet-Schwering et al.,1998)。

    Baidoo(1989)和Zak et al.(1997)研究表明,泌乳期限饲的母猪其下一胎的排卵数少,且胚胎存活率低。Hughes(1993)报道,分娩时的P2背膘厚<12mm及断奶时的P2背膘厚<10mm将延长断奶-发情间隔(>2d),并降低母猪2~6胎的产仔数(0.5~1.5头)。相反,母猪第一个泌乳期的体蛋白保持不变可缩短断奶-发情间隔,并提高第二胎的窝产仔数(大于1.2头)(Boyd et al.,2000)。

    研究报道表明,母猪的利用年限与其生产率在逻辑上呈正相关,其利用年限及其有关的问题(返情率、受胎率)一方面取决于母猪整个繁殖周期中躯体组成变化的特点,更重要的是取决于泌乳期间母猪瘦肉和(或)脂肪组织的减少量(King,1987;Whittemore and Morgan,1990)。Vesseur et al.(1994)阐明了泌乳期的体重损失对断奶-发情时间间隔(WEI)的重要性,损失其分娩后体重7.5%的初产母猪延长了断奶-发情间隔(2~4.7d),泌乳期失重对第二胎母猪WEI影响较小,而对第三或四胎母猪的WEI无影响。为达到最高繁殖性能的最佳饲养方案是:使母猪躯体成分在繁殖周期任何阶段的变化减少到最低限度(Dourmad et al.,1994)。好的饲养方案应使母猪分娩-断奶期间的背膘损失小于2~3mm、眼肌面积变化约10~11%(Boyd et al.,2000)。

    许多研究显示,泌乳期间的脂肪损失大于妊娠期间的脂肪沉积,因此,每个生产周期母猪体脂有净损失(Whittemore et al.,1980;Esbenshade et al.,1986;Young and King,1986;Young and King,1989;Trottier,1991;Sorensen et al.,1993)。即:尽管每个繁殖周期的体重和肌肉厚度在增加,但背膘厚却在减少(Sorensen et al.,1993)。而其它连续几胎的试验报告并未显示背膘的减少(Whittemore and Yang,1989;Lee and Mitchell,1989)。据推荐,脂肪储备的最低限是背膘水平为10mm。当动用体储作为日粮能量摄入量的补充时,低于此下限母猪将不再动用自身的体储(Whittemore et al.,1984;Eastham et al.,1988)。

    泌乳失重内容受日粮蛋白和能量摄入量、母猪体组成及泌乳的代谢需要等影响。据估测,饲喂典型泌乳日粮的母猪,其失重内容是30%的脂肪和13%的蛋白(NRC,1988)。最近研究发现,作为体重损失的一部分,脂肪损失0.60~0.69而蛋白质损失0.09~0.14,这表明脂肪损失与蛋白质损失之比不是固定的,它受与乳养分产量有关的日粮蛋白质:能量比的影响(Mullan,1991)。泌乳期实行限饲的泌乳母猪能动用大于25~30%的体蛋白储备来维持泌乳(Mullan and Williams,1990),继续限饲将降低泌乳量及仔猪的生长速度(Clowers et al.,1998)。与不限饲能量的母猪相比,限制能量摄入的母猪泌乳期动用更多的体脂(Armstrong et al.,1986;Brendemuhl et al.,1989),并提高整个泌乳期血浆尿素N的浓度,这表明其也动用了更多的肌肉组织(Reese et al.,1982;Nelssen et al.,1985)。另外,饲喂高蛋白(19%CP)日粮的肥母猪会主要动用体脂,而饲喂低蛋白(7%CP)日粮的肥母猪则既动用体蛋白又动用体脂组织(Revell et al.,1998a)。

    4. 泌乳期乏情

    泌乳期母猪乏情的原因是下丘脑-垂体轴对内分泌的刺激作用减弱(Kirkwood et al.,1987),母猪在泌乳期间血浆中促乳素的水平很高,从而抑制了促性腺激素的分泌,卵巢活动受到抑制,母猪表现为乏情。研究表明,这种抑制作用随泌乳的延续而减弱(Elsaesser and Parvizi,1980)。许多研究证实,泌乳期饲喂低能日粮或实行限饲的初产母猪断奶后持续乏情(Reese et al.,1982;King and Williams,1984;Armstrong et al.,1986)。而经产母猪未发现这种情况。乏情还与断奶时母猪的体重及背膘水平高度相关(Johnston et al.,1989;Mullan and Williams,1989),断奶时体重较轻且背膘较薄的母猪乏情期较长。因为,泌乳期失重太多的母猪断奶后一段时间仍处于分解代谢状态(Brooks,1982;Reese et al.,1983)。

    5. 泌乳的营养需要

    能量和氨基酸摄入量对泌乳和随后的繁殖性能均很重要。葡萄糖是泌乳最重要的养分,它占乳腺所吸收养分总量的约60%。约70%的机体葡萄糖被乳腺利用(Boyd and Kensinger,1998)。泌乳奶牛的乳汁合成能力与葡萄糖的利用率直接相关,而葡萄糖的利用率又依赖于采食量。Tokach及其同事(1992a)报道了母猪乳汁合成的能量依赖,并发现,利用赖氨酸(Lys)来产奶的能力取决于采食量。随着能量摄入量的提高,Lys 摄入量提高的效应增加。

    泌乳期蛋白质和氨基酸的摄入量对整个泌乳期都十分关键(Sohn and Maxwell,1999)。
Al-Matubsi et al.(1998)研究表明,妊娠期和泌乳期给予高水平的日粮蛋白质和Lys提高了乳汁中雌激素的含量,而日粮中的雌激素可提高仔猪的成活力(Bate and Hacker,1982)。Pettigrew(1993)指出,泌乳期的Lys需要量为26g Lys/kg窝增重/d+维持需要(49mg/kgBW0.75,2.55g/d)。

    6. 结语

    综上所述,母猪泌乳期的营养与饲养管理也是养猪生产中的关键环节之一,生产实践中应根据母猪自身的营养生理状况、预期生产目标和养殖场的实际情况合理配制其泌乳期日粮并采取适当的饲养管理措施以取得最佳的繁殖成绩和经济效益。

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